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Vaccinations: Vaccine Schedule For Puppies And Adult Dogs

When vaccinating your puppy or adult dog, it is imperative that you do not make the following common mistakes:

  • Never Vaccinate To Early:  

    When puppies are very young, they are protected from disease by ingesting their mother’s first milk, called colostrum. This rich milk contains maternal antibodies against infectious disease, which the mother passes down to her puppies. The puppy’s immune system is not fully mature, or active, until it is around six months of age, so the maternal antibodies provide passive immunity to each puppy.

    When a puppy with a reasonable amount of maternal antibodies is vaccinated, the maternal antibodies will essentially inactivate the vaccine, just as they would a real virus. The maternal antibodies for distemper are fairly predictable and are usually low enough for vaccination to be effective at eight or nine weeks of age. In the case of parvovirus however, the maternal antibodies last a lot longer in most puppies so vaccinating at eight or nine weeks wouldn’t be all that effective.

    In a study performed by Vanguard, it was found that a combination vaccine (which typically contains parvovirus, distemper and one to five other antigens), given to six week old puppies had only a 52% chance of protecting them against parvo. This means that the puppy has all of the risk of the vaccine but only half the potential benefit. At nine weeks of age, 88% of the puppies in the study showed a response to the vaccine. At 12 weeks, 100% of the puppies were protected. Some vaccines will provide protection earlier or later.

    Vaccinating puppies under 12 weeks of age, and certainly under nine weeks of age, for parvovirus is a high risk, low reward approach. Not only is the parvovirus component of the combination vaccine not all that likely to be effective, it can actually work to block the effectiveness of the distemper component. It also makes the vaccine more dangerous, because the more antigens contained in the vaccine, the greater the risk of autoimmune disease (including allergies, joint disease and cancer).

    Moreover, most vets haven’t seen a case of distemper in years, which begs the question: what is the big push to start vaccinating puppies at six to eight weeks of age when the parvovirus component is unlikely to work and it is very unlikely the puppy will come into contact with distemper?

  • Never Vaccinate Too Often:  

    Pfizer performed an interesting field study in 1996 where they split vaccinated puppies into two groups. Group A received a single vaccination at 12 weeks and Group B received a first vaccine between eight to 10 weeks and a second at 12 weeks. When titers were measured, 100% of the puppies vaccinated once at 12 weeks were protected whereas only 94% of the puppies in Group B were protected – despite receiving two vaccines as opposed to one. It appears that the first vaccine can interfere with the second vaccine. So vaccinating your puppy twice not only doubles his risk for adverse vaccine reactions, it appears to make vaccination less effective overall.

    Most people – and many vets – believe that it takes more than one vaccine to create immunity in a puppy. This simply isn’t true. It only takes one vaccine to not only protect a puppy, but to protect him for life.

    After more than 40 years of testing immunity in thousands of dogs, Dr. Ronald Schultz has come to the following conclusion: “Only one dose of the modified-live canine ‘core’ vaccine, when administered at 16 weeks or older, will provide long lasting (many years to a lifetime) immunity in a very high percentage of animals.” That very high percentage is nearly 100%.

    The only reason vets give puppies more than one vaccine is that they are trying to catch the small window in time when the maternal antibodies are low enough that they will not block the vaccine, but the puppy is young enough that he is not exposed to viruses in the environment. The point in time when the maternal antibodies for parvovirus wane enough for vaccination to work can vary between eight weeks and 26 weeks. So vets dutifully and mindlessly vaccinate every two to four weeks – with a combination vaccine, not just with parvo – trying to get one of them to work.

    Most vets also vaccinate once more at a year of age – just to be certain.

    Nearly all vets vaccinate every year or three years after that – for some unknown reason because there is no scientific validity to this practice. As Dr. Schultz stated, there is no need for revaccination once a puppy is protected – and if a puppy receives a vaccination at 16 weeks, he is very, very likely to be protected.

  • Never Vaccinate Too Much:  

    The result of these errors in judgement is that puppies receive more vaccines than they need – lots more. They receive a parvovirus component in their first combination vaccine when that part of the vaccine has little chance of working. Most puppies are protected against distemper with the first vaccine if not given too early, yet most puppies are given a combination vaccine containing distemper at 12 to 16 weeks and older – when they really only need the parvovirus.

    Most combination puppy vaccines also contain an adenovirus component. Adenovirus has been shown to suppress the immune system for ten days following vaccination. This means that puppies that receive needless vaccines not only suffer the risk of adverse events from the vaccine, but they are more at risk of picking up any other virus or bacterium that crosses their path because their immune system has been overloaded by the vaccine itself.

    This is not a good proposition for a puppy taken to the vet clinic to receive his vaccines, because it exposes him to the riskiest possible environment, outside of perhaps an animal shelter, and his immune system will be suppressed while his body tries to fight four, five or even seven different diseases, all at the same time. It’s no wonder that puppies can succumb to vaccine-induced disease – their immune system is simply overloaded at a time when they are exposed to a pretty dangerous place for puppies to be.

    Adenovirus is an upper respiratory disease that is self limiting – that hardly seems like a good trade off for immune protection when puppies need it most. The same applies to parainfluenza – and coronavirus which commonly occurs only in puppies too young to be vaccinated anyway. And that’s just the core vaccines.

    Some puppies will also be vaccinated with other non-core vaccines including the particularly dangerous leptospirosis vaccine. Clearly, vets are very good at vaccination. The problem is, current puppy vaccination programs don’t adequately address immunity. Very few vets take a realistic and scientific look at the best time to vaccinate for distemper, followed by the best time to vaccinate for parvovirus, followed by asking why are we even vaccinating for self limiting diseases such as coronavirus and adenovirus, which are really only dangerous in puppies who are too young to effectively vaccinate anyway?

    Taking the Guesswork out of Puppy Shots

    Vaccines may seem technologically advanced, but when given randomly and for no good reason, they are at best useless and at worst dangerous. Vaccine manufacturers are constantly trying to improve the safety of vaccines, but there will always be an inherent danger when injecting pharmaceutical products, along with their toxic chemicals, into puppies.

    Until the dubious time comes when vaccines are completely safe and completely effective, there are two proven, effective ways to reduce the number of unnecessary vaccines in puppies, thereby reducing the risk of puppies dying or suffering permanent illness from vaccines.

    Nomographs

    Not that many years ago, vets used something called a nomograph to tell breeders the best time to vaccinate their puppies. The nomograph examines antibody titers of the dam and determines almost exactly when her maternal antibodies will wear off in her puppies. The value in knowing this is that the breeder can provide the right vaccine at the right time, eliminating the need for, and risk of, unnecessary vaccinations.

    Nomographs are perfect for breeders who are interested in using only monovalent (single virus), vaccines in place of the more dangerous combination or polyvalent vaccines. For example, the nomograph could predict that the maternal antibodies for distemper will wane at eight weeks, but that parvovirus might be at 14 weeks. The breeder would then vaccinate with the right vaccine at the right time and the vaccination schedule would be based on science instead of guesswork. Yet for some reason, nomographs have fallen out of favor.

    Titers

    For puppy owners without the advantage of a nomograph, titers can save puppies’ lives and protect their well being in the long run. Instead of guessing if vaccination is necessary, running a titer three weeks after a vaccination will indicate with nearly 100% certainty whether the puppy needs another vaccine or not.

    Titers also allow vets to use the safer monovalent vaccines. A puppy can be vaccinated at an age when he is likely to respond to the vaccine – and if he comes back with a titer three weeks later, he is protected and very likely for life. If there is no titer for parvo at that time, a monovalent vaccine could be given and a titer run three weeks after that. If the titer is low, then the vaccine can be repeated but if it is high, the puppy is protected against parvovirus, very likely for life. And the good news is that, there is now a new and affordable in-house titer test.

    Despite these two easily accessible options, many vets believe – and lead us to believe – that puppies must be subjected to a series of vaccinations. Many vets understand titers but don’t offer them as an option to vaccination. This may be because vaccines are cheap and titers are not. Whether that equates to less profit for the vets or they are assuming that puppy owners don’t want to invest in a safer vaccination program is unknown. Titers can be expensive – but so can the damage that results from vaccines. Unlike vaccines, titers are completely safe for puppies.

    Many vets are also unwilling to stock monovalent vaccines because of the higher cost. The most likely scenario however, is that vets are simply vaccinating with the typical puppy schedule out of nothing more than habit and convenience.

    In the end, the best way to avoid vaccine damage – and your puppy being the subject of another tragic story – is obviously to not vaccinate. This might increase the risk of acute disease, but domestic and wild animals – and people too – have been exposed to viruses for years and the immune system, when not suppressed with vaccinations, poor diet, toxins and drugs, has a profound ability to fight off exposure to viruses and bacteria. Simply supporting the immune system can go a long ways toward avoiding acute disease such as parvo – and will certainly reduce the severity of the symptoms.

    The second option is to choose vaccines wisely and with a constant awareness that every vaccine has the potential to kill the patient. Nomographs and titers are useful tools that really aren’t that expensive in the long run when compared to the thousands of dollars pet owners spend on chronic, vaccine-induced diseases including but certainly not limited to, hypothyroidism, seizures, cancer, arthritis, allergies and gastrointestinal issues. They are very cheap insurance in many regards.

    The worst option is to do nothing different and haphazardly vaccinate puppies every two to four weeks with a combination vaccine. Many vets fail to make the connection between chronic, debilitating disease and over-vaccination, so unless a puppy’s head swells to the size of a football immediately after vaccination, they are reluctant to blame vaccines for any of the adverse reactions that Dr. Schultz identified.

    It’s important to understand that we pet owners can open vets’ eyes to safer and more effective puppy vaccination programs by paying for titer tests and investing in monovalent vaccines – even if that means having to buy a whole case of vaccine vials for one little puppy. Chances are that case of monovalent vaccines will disappear, one by one, and every one used means one less puppy who will be potentially harmed by needless or thoughtless vaccination.

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  • Puppies first deworming

Puppies First Vaccinations:  (DHP)

  • Distemper
  • Adenovirus 2 (Hepatitis)
  • Parainfluenza
Do not give the Parvovirus vaccine in the first vaccination as it may interfere with the Distemper vaccination.
  • Time for the puppies 2nd deworming

 12 Weeks Vaccinations:  (DHLPP)

  • Distemper
  • Adenovirus 2 (Hepatitis)
  • Leptospirosis
  • Parainfluenza
  • Parvovirus
Optional Vaccinations:  Corona and Bordatella

16 Weeks Vaccinations (DHLPP Booster)

  • Distemper
  • Adenovirus 2,(Hepatitis)
  • Leptospirosis
  • Parainfluenza
  • Parvovirus
Optional Vaccinations: Corona and Bordatella
 Rabies Vaccination
The Rabies vaccination should be administered with no other vaccines and you must wait a minimum of 4 weeks from the previous vaccinations.

One Year Vaccinations:  (DHPP Booster)

  • Distemper
  • Adenovirus 2 (Hepatitis)
  • Parainfluenza
  • Parvovirus
  • 3 Year Rabies Vaccination: You must wait 4 weeks after Distemper/Parvovirus booster before administering 

 3 Year Vaccinations:  (DHPP)

  • Distemper
  • Adenovirus 2 (Hepatitis)
  • Parainfluenza
  • Parvovirus
  • 3 Year Rabies Vaccination: You must wait 4 weeks after Distemper/Parvovirus booster before administering 

Canine Diseases We Are Vaccinating For

Canine distemper is a paramyxovirus, which appears very similar to the paramyxovirus causing human measles. Canine distemper virus in the dog can affect a wide range of organs including the skin, brain, eyes, intestinal andrespiratory tracts. The virus is transmitted through the air through coughing by infected animals and also through body secretions such as urine. Dogs of any age can be affected, however, most are puppies less than 6 months of age.
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Your pet’s liver is a very complex organ that processes nutrients soon after they are absorbed through it’s intestines. This makes it the first organ to come in contact with toxins and harmful products absorbed from your pet’s foods.
The liver plays a major role in metabolism, detoxification, energy storage and blood protein synthesis. It also produces bile, which aids in digestion. Your pet’s liver has a very large reserve capacity – so it has to be severely damaged before any signs of illness will become apparent to you.
This disease is caused by a virus. It is part of a group called adenovirus (CAV-1). This disease is not infectious to people or cats, but foxes, wolves and bears also catch and carry it. Dogs catch this disease by inhaling or eating the virus that is present in the urine, nasal and eye secretions of other infected dogs. Dogs can carry and pass on the virus for up to a year after recovering. Canine Adenovirus is part of the vaccine combinations your puppy receives when it is 12 -16 weeks old. Although the virus in the vaccine is Canine Adenovirus 2, it protects against type 1 as well. After receiving this vaccination at 12 and 14 weeks of age, your dog will be immune to CAV-1and CAV-2 for many years – probably for life. So booster vaccinations are not needed. Because of the effectiveness of this vaccine, Canine Infectious Hepatitis has become very rare in dogs in the United States.
Leptospirosis, often called “Lepto,” is an infectious disease that affects dogs and other mammals, including mice, rats, pigs, horses, opossums, raccoons, skunks, voles, cows and people. As more people live rural, there is increasing contact between domestic pets and wildlife, which has caused an increase in cases of leptospirosis. The disease is caused by several closely related species of bacteria that are spread in urine, water and soil. Infection occurs when a dog contacts the bacteria through a break in its skin or when it drinks contaminated water or ingests contaminated soil. Leptospira target the kidneys and liver; some infected dogs suffer permanent liver and/or kidney damage, and some die. However, most infected dogs never show signs of being sick, although they still carry the bacteria and are sources of infection for other animals. Leptospirosis is on the rise in companion dogs,
The parainfluenza virus is often referred to by other names, such as canine influenza virus, greyhound disease and race flu. This virus used to affect only horses and is believed to have adapted to become contagious to dogs as well. Currently, no other species are at risk of this particular strain of the virus. Parainfluenza virus is easily spread from dog to dog and causessymptoms which may become fatal. The highest instances of this respiratory infection are seen in areas with high dog populations, such as race tracks, boarding kennels and pet stores, but it remains highly contagious to any dog of any age.
Symptoms of parainfluenza virus include many general symptoms seen in other infections, viruses and diseases. Symptoms can vary in intensity and commonly affect younger puppies and aging dogs the worst. This virus is commonly mistaken for kennel cough, as the symptoms between the two are similar. It’s important to keep in mind that kennel cough usually produces no additionalsymptoms, other than the cough. Symptoms to look for when parainfluenza virus is suspected are as follows:
  • Dry or hacking cough that may worsen with activity
  • Fever
  • Difficulty with breathing, wheezing
  • Runny nose
  • Sneezing
  • Runny eyes, eye inflammation or conjunctivitis
  • Possible pneumonia with depression, loss of appetite and lethargy
Canine Parvovirus  is a highly contagious viral disease that can produce a life-threatening illness. The virus attacks rapidly dividing cells in a dog’s body, most severely affecting the intestinal tract. Parvovirus also attacks the white blood cells, and when young animals are infected, the virus can damage the heart muscle and cause lifelong cardiac problem
The general symptoms of parvovirus are lethargy, severe vomiting, loss of appetite and bloody, foul-smelling diarrhea  that can lead to life-threatening dehydration.
Parvovirus is extremely contagious and can be transmitted by any person, animal or object that comes in contact with an infected dog’s feces. Highly resistant, the virus can live in the environment for months, and may survive on inanimate objects such as food bowls, shoes, clothes, carpet and floors. It is common for an unvaccinated dog to contract parvovirus from the streets, especially in urban areas where there are many dogs.
Kennel cough, also called infectious tracheobronchitis, is a highly contagious, acute upper-respiratory tract disorder involving inflammation of the throat, windpipe and airways. It got its name because it spreads rapidly through boarding kennels, puppy mills, pet shops and other places where dogs congregate in close quarters. Kennel cough can be caused by several things, including Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine parainfluenza virus, adenovirus types 1 and 2, herpesvirus, distemper virus and mycoplasma. Secondary bacterial infections are fairly common and can be quite serious. Dogs usually develop signs of kennel cough within a week of being exposed to an infected dog. The hallmark of this condition is sudden onset of a dry, hacking, unproductive cough that sounds like the dog has something stuck in its throat. The gagging and coughing fits worsen with exercise and often are accompanied by upchucking of a pale, frothy liquid. Otherwise, most dogs are bright and alert.
A canine coronavirus infection (CCV) is a highly contagious intestinal disease that can be found in dogs all around the world. This particular virus is specific to dogs, both wild and domestic. The coronavirus replicates itself inside the small intestine and is limited to the upper two-thirds of the small intestine and local lymph nodes. A CCV infection is generally considered to be a relatively mild disease with sporadic symptoms, or none at all. But if a CCV infection occurs simultaneously with a viral canine parvovirus infection, or an infection caused by other intestinal (enteric) pathogens, the consequences can be much more serious. There have been some deaths reported in vulnerable puppies.
The symptoms of a CCV infection vary. In adult dogs, the majority of infections will be inapparent, with no symptoms to show. Sometimes, a single instance of vomiting and a few days of explosive diarrhea (liquid, yellow-green or orange) may occur. Fever is typically very rare, while anorexia and depression are more common. Occasionally, an infected dog may also experience some mild respiratory problems. Puppies may exhibit protracted diarrhea and dehydration, and are most at risk of developing serious complications with this virus. Severe enteritis (inflammation of the small intestine) in puppies will occasionally result in death.
Rabies is a severe, and often fatal, viral polioencephalitis that specifically affects the gray matter of the dog’s brain and its central nervous system (CNS). The primary way the rabies virus is transmitted to dogs in the United States is through a bite from a disease carrier: foxes, raccoons, skunks, and bats. Infectious virus particles are retained in a rabid animal’s salivary glands to better disseminate the virus through their saliva.
Once the virus enters the dog’s body, it replicates in the cells of the muscles, and then spreads to the closest nerve fibers, including all peripheral, sensory and motor nerves, traveling from there to the CNS via fluid within the nerves. The virus can take up to a month to develop, but once the symptoms have begun, the virus progresses rapidly.
This inflammatory infection also has zoonotic characteristics and can therefore be transmitted to humans.
There are two forms of rabies: paralytic and furious. In the early symptom (prodomal) stage of rabies infection, the dog will show only mild signs of CNS abnormalities. This stage will last from one to three days. Most dogs will then progress to either the furious stage, the paralytic stage, or a combination of the two, while others succumb to the infection without displaying any major symptoms.
Furious rabies is characterized by extreme behavioral changes, including overt aggression and attack behavior. Paralytic rabies, also referred to as dumb rabies, is characterized by weakness and loss of coordination, followed by paralysis.
This is a fast-moving virus. If it is not treated soon after the symptoms have begun, the prognosis is poor. Therefore, if your dog has been in a fight with another animal, or has been bitten or scratched by another animal, or if you have any reason to suspect that your pet has come into contact with a rabid animal (even if your pet has been vaccinated against the virus), you must take your dog to a veterinarian for preventive care immediately.
The following are some of the symptoms to watch for in your dog:
  • Pica
  • Fever
  • Seizures
  • Paralysis
  • Hydrophobia
  • Jaw is dropped
  • Inability to swallow
  • Change in tone of bark
  • Muscular lack of coordination
  • Unusual shyness or aggression
  • Excessive excitability
  • Constant irritability/changes in attitude and behavior
  • Paralysis in the mandible and larynx
  • Excessive salivation (hypersalivation), or frothy saliva

Heartworm, Internal Parasites, Flea And Tick Preventatives

For Non-Breeding Dogs

 Trifexis

trifexis

Trifexis is a chewable tablet that kills fleas and prevents infestations, protects against heartworms, and treats and controls adult hookworm, roundworm, and whipworm infections. Trifexis requires a prescription from your veterinarian.
For: Dogs (8 weeks of age and older and weighing at least 5 lbs)
Benefits:
Begins killing biting fleas within 30 minutes
Kills fleas before they can lay eggs
Prevents heartworm disease
Treats and controls roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms
Artificial beef flavor made from pork liver and hydrolyzed soy
Easy to administer chewable tablet
Please be advised Trifexis is NOT safe to use on breeding and lactating bitches.  Trifexis is also NOT safe to use on adult breeding males. 

For Breeding Adult Dogs

 Panacur

Panacur

Dosage for Puppies

  • Virtually all puppies suffer from roundworm infestations. They’re either born with roundworms or get them by nursing infected mothers. Roundworms migrate from the blood through the lungs into the digestive tract. Puppies that aren’t treated can develop pneumonia, become malnourished and fail to thrive.
    If you’re a breeder, the manufacturer recommends treating your puppies with liquid Panacur Small Animal 2.5 percent (10 percent for large puppies) at two and five weeks, with a third treatment before the puppies go to new homes. Treat puppies remaining with you at eight and 12 weeks and those kept around other dogs long-term every six to eight weeks on a continuing basis.
    If you’ve brought a new puppy home and it’s not around other dogs, worming it every three to four months should be adequate. Administer Panacur liquid by mouth after your puppies have nursed. If they’re weaned, mix the liquid in their food right before they eat. Give puppies under six months 2ml per kg (2.2 lbs) of weight. Give puppies weighing 9 to 18 oz. 0.5ml per dose; puppies 18 to 2.2 lbs, 1ml; puppies 2.2 lbs to 3.3 lbs, 2ml; and puppies 3.3 to 4.4 lbs, 3ml. Puppies weighing 4.4 lbs should get 4ml, and an additional 2ml for every 2.2 pounds over that. Dose your puppies once daily for three consecutive days.

Dosage for Adult dogs

  • Mix 4ml of Pancur Small Animal 2.5 percent liquid (10 percent for a large breed) for every 2.2 lbs of your adult dog’s weight in his food before feeding or administer it by mouth after your pet has had a meal. Give only one dose.
    Treat your dog whenever he’s infested with parasites. Otherwise, if your pet has little exposure to other dogs, treat him every three to four months. If your pet is kenneled, dose him with Panacur every six to eight weeks.

Dosage for Pregnant Dogs

  • Use Panacur Small Animal 2.5 percent (10 percent for large breeds) to keep your pregnant bitch from passing roundworms to her litter either pre-delivery or through her milk. Start on the 40th day of her pregnancy and continue until two days after she delivers. That should be about 25 days.
    Give her 1ml of Panacur for every 2.2 lbs of body weight. That’s 4ml if she’s between 4.4 and 8.8 lbs; 8ml if she’s 8.8 to 17.6 lbs; and 16ml if she’s from 17.6 to 35 lbs. Mix the dose in her food right before she eats or administer it orally after she’s eaten.

Read more : http://www.ehow.com/way_5179884_liquid-panacur-dosage-dogs.html

 Heartgard

Heartgard for heartworms

Heartgard Plus is a real-beef chewable tablet for dogs that provides protection against heartworms, and treats and controls roundworms and hookworms. Heartgard Plus is given monthly and requires a prescription from your veterinarian.
For: Dogs (6 weeks of age or older and no weight requirement)
 
Benefits:
Considered the most tasty heartworm chewable tablet (beef flavor)
Effectively controls heartworms, roundworms & hookworms
Only given once a month

 Frontline

Frontline For Fleas And Ticks

Frontline Plus is a monthly topical flea and tick preventative for dogs and cats. Frontline Plus kills 100% of adult fleas on your pet within 12 hours and 100% of all ticks and chewing lice within 48 hours. Frontline Plus contains an insect growth regulator, S-methoprene, which kills flea eggs and larvae. It’s effective against all stages of the brown dog tick, the American dog tick, the lone star tick and the deer tick (the major carrier of Lyme disease). (3 Pack = 3 doses which lasts 3 months.)
For: Cats/Kittens and Dogs/Puppies (8 weeks of age and older)
 
Benefits:
Kills all existing fleas on your pet within 12 hours
Each application provides a full month of protection
Also aids in the control of sarcoptic mange infections
Great for pets that swim since it’s waterproof
Kills ticks and chewing lice
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